Assessment of Permanence Levels of Technical Skills in Primary School Children

Permanence is the continuity in the performance or absence of it.

Various permanence methods have been used in motor memory research, and most important ones among these are absolute permanence and relative permanence methods (Schmidt and Lee, 1999).

Due to the great interest in soccer – which is suggested to be the most popular sport of our era, substantial amounts of effort & research are spent by the sports scientists studying concepts related to soccer development.

Within the game, the most important task of the soccer infrastructure is to provide selected youngsters with improved knowledge, skill, attitude and values within the fundamentals of soccer with the aim of helping them progress towards the elite level of the game.

For instructors, therefore, knowing the developmental features of children and how learning occurs is ultimately the most important skill set needed to be absorbed (Bayansalduz, 2012, 2015; Le Moal, 2014)

How the Study Developed

It is reported within the literature that; conditional and coordinative skills are transferred from one bodily system to the other via the key learning transfer provisions.

In sportive sciences, it is important to develop the achievement, performance and solidity characteristics, of the sports person through applying bilateral teaching techniques.

Amongst the 11-12 years old researched group inclusive of 80 children (40 girls, 40 boys) within this study, the scientific tests were applied pre and post an 8-week fundamental soccer skills training program, and then repeated following a 15-day period of passive resting.

Child dribbling through cones

Practical Application

  • Interestingly, within this particular study presented, when the pre- and post-test results of the groups were compared, significant differences were found for keepie-uppie test only (p<0.05).


  • The wall pass, dribbling and successful shooting test assessed, found no significant differences (p<0.05).


  • The biggest difference in the developmental points occurred between the bilateral group and the control group, as expected.


  • In keepie-uppie permanence values between the 3 different experimental groups, significant differences were found within the experiment groups.


  • Based on the data collected, it can be said that, the 8-weeks soccer training program is effective in the development of a fundamental technical keepie-uppie skill used by players of all ages and abilities which transfers into the game with a ball control aspect.


  • Additionally, it should be noted that this skill developed within the study can be classed as a permanent skill development which is key to the learning process in youth soccer.

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